Disinfection solutions are divided into physical solutions, chemical procedures and organic strategies. The use of biological enzymes as disinfectants need to be one particular of the biological disinfection approaches. Biological disinfection is the use of animals, plants, microorganisms and (or) their metabolites to eradicate or eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in the surroundings, so as to achieve the objective of managing the spread of disorders. Biological disinfectants refer to organic merchandise with in vitro bactericidal effects. According to the nature and source of biological disinfectants, they are now predominantly divided into:
① Plant-derived disinfectants: The antibacterial energetic ingredients in higher crops are predominantly essential oils. Vital oils are compounds of esters, aldehydes, ketones and terpenes. Terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, natural and organic acids, proteins, and so forth. also have antibacterial consequences.
②Antibacterial peptide: A tiny molecule polypeptide with antibacterial activity induced by organisms. At present, there are much more than 1,000 antibacterial peptides isolated from organisms. With the growing maturity of peptide chemical synthesis technological innovation, many artificially synthesized antimicrobial peptides have entered medical analysis in the world.
③Bacteriophage: Bacteriophage can precisely infect a specific sort of germs, penetrate into bacterial cells and replicate alone, and at the exact time create lyase, extremely certain and rapid lysing bacterial cell partitions, killing bacteria and releasing new viruses.
④ Organic enzymes: Organic enzymes are extensively current in bigger animals, protozoa, insects, plants and a variety of microorganisms. It is a remarkably productive, hugely precise and bio-enzyme biocatalyst. With the swift growth of contemporary life science and biotechnology, the compounding of unique enzyme disinfectants and combining them into a composite organic enzyme disinfectant can prevail over the shortcomings of a solitary disinfection spectrum of enzyme disinfectants. Enzyme disinfectants have captivated extra and far more attention simply because of their higher efficiency, protection and theoretically reusable benefits.
Major types of enzyme disinfectants
Chitinase is a linear polysaccharide composed of N-acetylglucosamine connected by β-1,4 bonds, and is the structural compound of most bacterial mobile partitions. Chitinase created by contaminated plants can wipe out chitin in bacterial cell walls. At present, the research on chitinase at household and overseas is generally for its antibacterial mechanism, and there is no suitable software exploration.
The peroxidases recognized to have fantastic bactericidal results on pathogenic microorganisms involve haloperoxidase, lactoperoxidase (LPO) and glucose oxidase. At existing, the research on peroxidase at household and overseas is however in the experimental stage, and there is no product or service application.
Ribozymes (RNA enzymes) is a piece of RNA with enzymatic exercise, with high specificity and non-harmful qualities, and it is a single of the hotspots of antiviral study in the latest several years. The antiviral results of ribozymes are at present mostly in the experimental investigate stage, and some scientists have utilized ribozymes to the investigation of anti-HIV infection. The antiviral cure of ribozymes has revealed hope, but there is no investigation on the application of ribozymes as disinfectants at residence and overseas.
1.4 Phage Lyase
Bacteriphage lysins are a type of protein encoded by bacteriophages that are synthesized at the late stage of genome replication. They can hydrolyze the peptidoglycan of the bacterial mobile wall to kill the germs. Research have proven that phage lyase has a very good bactericidal result on pathogenic microorganisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus anthracis, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus aureus and so on. Bacteriphage lysins is however in the phase of laboratory exploration and clinical trials.
Lysozyme, also regarded as muramidase or N-acetylmuramidegycanohydrlase, is an alkaline enzyme that can hydrolyze mucopolysaccharides in pathogenic germs. It is greatly found in various tissues of the human body, egg whites of birds and poultry, tears of mammals, saliva, plasma, milk and other system fluids, amongst which egg whites are the most plentiful.